By American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers
The 2009 ASHRAE instruction manual - basics covers uncomplicated rules and knowledge utilized in the HVAC&R undefined. up to date with study backed via ASHRAE and others, this quantity contains 39 chapters overlaying common engineering details, easy fabrics, weather information, load and effort calculations, duct and pipe layout, and sustainability, plus reference tables for abbreviations and emblems, in addition to actual homes of fabrics. From the CD-ROM, the climatic layout stipulations tables were extra to this reference, that includes climatic conditions for almost each significant urban on the earth.
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Extra info for 2009 ASHRAE Handbook - Fundamentals (I-P Edition)
Pumps and blowers are strong potential noise sources. Turbomachinery noise is associated with blade-flow occurrences. 14 2009 ASHRAE Handbook—Fundamentals band noise appears from vortex and turbulence interaction with walls and is primarily a function of the operating point of the machine. For blowers, it has a minimum at the peak efficiency point (Groff et al. 1967). Narrow-band noise also appears at the bladecrossing frequency and its harmonics. Such noise can be very annoying because it stands out from the background.
5 Pipe Factor for Flow in Conduits Fig. 8 Geometric Separation, Flow Development, and Loss in Flow Through Orifice Fig. 6 Flow in Conduit Entrance Region Fig. 50 for wide rectangular and axisymmetric conduits. Figure 5 indicates much higher values for rectangular and circular conduits for turbulent flow. 10 for fully developed turbulent pipe flow. Boundary Layer The boundary layer is the region close to the wall where wall friction affects flow. Boundary layer thickness (usually denoted by G is thin compared to downstream flow distance.
Compressibility All fluids are compressible to some degree; their density depends somewhat on the pressure. Steady liquid flow may ordinarily be treated as incompressible, and incompressible flow analysis is satisfactory for gases and vapors at velocities below about 4000 to 8000 fpm, except in long conduits. For liquids in pipelines, a severe pressure surge or water hammer may be produced if flow is suddenly stopped. This pressure surge travels along the pipe at the speed of sound in the liquid, alternately compressing and decompressing the liquid.