Download A Course in Mathematical Analysis, vol. 1: Foundations and by D. J. H. Garling PDF

By D. J. H. Garling

The 3 volumes of A path in Mathematical research offer a whole and designated account of all these parts of genuine and complicated research that an undergraduate arithmetic scholar can count on to come across of their first or 3 years of research. Containing enormous quantities of workouts, examples and functions, those books becomes a useful source for either scholars and teachers. this primary quantity makes a speciality of the research of real-valued capabilities of a true variable. in addition to constructing the elemental concept it describes many purposes, together with a bankruptcy on Fourier sequence. it is usually a Prologue within which the writer introduces the axioms of set thought and makes use of them to build the genuine quantity process. quantity II is going directly to ponder metric and topological areas and capabilities of a number of variables. quantity III covers advanced research and the idea of degree and integration.

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Additional info for A Course in Mathematical Analysis, vol. 1: Foundations and elementary real analysis

Example text

1 (The recursion theorem) Suppose that A is a non-empty ¯ ∈ A. Then there is a unique set, that f is a mapping of A to itself and that a ¯ and as(n) = f (an ) for n ∈ P . sequence (an )n∈P such that a0 = a Proof Recall that a sequence is a function from P to A, that a function is a relation satisfying certain conditions, and that a relation is a subset of P × A. Let us consider the set of relations on P × A. We say that a relation R is recursive if (i) 0R¯ a and (ii) if nRa then s(n)Rf (a). 24 The axioms of set theory The set S of all recursive relations is non-empty, since P × A ∈ S.

For example, we express a positive rational number as a fraction p/q, where (p, q) is an ordered pair of natural numbers. The rational number 1/2 is the same as the rational number 3/6, but the ordered pairs (1, 2) and (3, 6) are different. In this circumstance, we say that (1, 2) and (3, 6) are equivalent. This leads to the concept of an equivalence relation. An equivalence relation on a set A is a relation on A (frequently, as here, denoted by ∼) which satisfies (i) if a ∼ b and b ∼ c then a ∼ c (transitivity); (ii) if a ∼ b then b ∼ a (symmetry); (iii) a ∼ a for all a ∈ A (reflexivity).

Use induction and the result of the previous exercise to prove the inclusion-exclusion principle: |A1 ∪ · · · ∪ An | n (−1)k+1 = {|Aj1 ∩ · · · ∩ Ajk | : 1 ≤ j1 < · · · < jk ≤ n} . 6 The pigeonhole principle. Suppose that f is a mapping from a set A to a finite set B. Show that if A is finite and |A| > |B| then f is not injective. Show that if A is infinite, then there exists b ∈ B such that f −1 ({b}) is infinite. 7 A tennis club has more than one member. During a season, each member plays against none, some or all of the other members.

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