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By E. Ahmed

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Extra resources for A Textbook of Opthalmology

Example text

It acts as an elevator (10 mm) o f the upper lid and as a direct antagonist of the orbicularis oculi. Orbicularis oculi. This is a broad, flat, elliptical sheet of concentric muscle fibres covering the eyelids and circumference of the orbit. It spreads over the temporal region downward toward the cheek. It is supplied by the facial nerve. The orbicularis is subdivided into three parts. (a) Palpebral part Pretarsal or marginal (muscle of Riolan) Preseptal or peripheral (b) Orbital part (c) Lacrimal part (Homer’s muscle).

Zeis *5 glands. These are minute sebaceous glands connected with the eyelashes. Moll*s glands. These are minute sweat glands opening between the two eyelashes or into the duct of Zeis’s gland. Frontal vein The deep or posttarsal drains into the orbital which drains into the cavernous sinus and the deep facial which drains into the pterygoid plexus. The two systems of veins meet in the angular vein, the nodal point of the entire venous system of the eyelids. The angular vein is situated at the inner canthus 8 mm away from the medial angle of the lids and lateral to the corresponding artery.

It has a base, margin, apex and four posteriorly converging walls. The orbital cavity is directed forward, outward and slightly downward. Base. The base of the orbit represents the anterior open end. Margin. This is made up o f three bones: the frontal, zygomatic and maxilla. There are four portions: superior, inferior, medial, and lateral. Apex. The apex corresponds to the optic foramen. Average dimensions. 1 indicates average dimensions of the orbit. 1 Average Dimensions of the Orbit Each orbital margin 40 mm Width of orbital opening 40 mm Height of orbital opening 35 mm Interorbital distance 25 mm Extraorbital distance 100 mm Length of sphenoid fissure 22 mm Distance between intracranial openings of 2opticcanals 25 mm orbital openings of 2 opticcanals 30 mm Orbital volume 30 ml Supraorbital notch for supraorbital vessels and Superciliary arch F ossa for lacrimal (i) mesosemes (intermediate): index between 83-89 (ii) megasemes (large): index more than 89 (iii) microsemes (small): index less than 83.

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