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By Richard Sennett

A grasp of the interaction among politics and psychology, Richard Sennett the following analyzes the character, the position, and the faces of authority—authority in own existence, within the public realm, authority as an concept. Why have we develop into so petrified of authority? What genuine wishes for authority will we have—for suggestions, balance, photos of power? What occurs whilst our worry of and our want for authority come into clash? In exploring those questions, Sennett examines conventional types of authority (The father’s within the family members, the lord’s in society) and the dominant modern forms of authority, and he exhibits how our wishes for, at least our resistance to, authority were formed through historical past and tradition, in addition to by means of mental disposition.

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2 Konzepte und Problembereiche Im Gegensatz zum Kulturbegriff, dem Hansen »Statik, Hermetik und Substanzialität« unterstellt, weise der Begriff ›Kollektiv‹ eine »besondere, liquide und fluktuierende, aber nicht völlig verdampfende Gegenständlichkeit« auf (Hansen 2010, 287). Da sie sich auf einem sehr theoretischen und zum Teil auch sehr spekulativen Niveau bewegen, haben die genannten Ansätze zwar die Theoriediskussion innerhalb der Interkulturellen Kommunikation und die Weiterentwicklung von Begriffen wie ›Kultur‹, ›Interkulturalität‹, ›Interkultur‹ und ›Diversität‹ vorangebracht, aber bisher kaum empirische Forschungen sowie konkrete Praxisanwendungen angestoßen.

Dieses permanente Vergleichen im Prozess des Verstehens anderer Kulturen lässt sich in allen Phänomenen Interkultureller Kommunikation beobachten: im Tourismus – etwa in den Reaktionen auf andere Essens- und Kleidungsformen – ebenso wie im Fremdsprachenunterricht und in den unterschiedlichsten Formen der interkulturellen Interaktion, der Begegnung und des Gesprächs mit Angehörigen anderer Kulturen. »In allen interkulturellen Situationen werden unbewußt und bewußt Vergleiche angestellt; ohne Vergleichshandlungen kann sich kein Sprecher in die Perspektive des andern hineinversetzen, und auch einfache Berichte über fremde Kulturen kommen ohne Vergleiche nicht aus.

Es besteht geradezu die Verpflichtung zur verbalen Kommunikation, sei sie noch so oberflächlich oder banal. In kollektivistischen Kulturen hingegen ist bloßes Zusammensein vom emotionalen Standpunkt aus gesehen ausreichend. Kommunikation gilt nicht als Notwendigkeit, es sei denn, dass Informationen auszutauschen sind« (Schugk 2004, 121). Position Land oder Region 1 2 3 4/5 4/5 6 7/8 7/8 9/10 9/10 11/12 11/12 13/14 13/14 15 16 17 18/19 18/19 20/21 20/21 22 23 24 25/26 25/26 27 Japan Österreich Venezuela Italien Schweiz Mexiko Irland Jamaika Großbritannien Deutschland West Philippinen Kolumbien Südafrika Ecuador USA Australien Neuseeland Griechenland Hongkong Argentinien Indien Belgien Arabische Länder Kanada Malaysia Pakistan Brasilien MASPunkte Position Land oder Region 95 79 73 70 70 69 68 68 66 66 64 64 63 63 62 61 58 57 57 56 56 54 53 52 50 50 49 28 29 30/31 30/31 32/33 32/33 34 35/36 35/36 37/38 37/38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48/49 48/49 50 51 52 53 Singapur Israel Indonesien Westafrika Türkei Taiwan Panama Iran Frankreich Spanien Peru Ostafrika El Salvador Südkorea Uruguay Guatemala Thailand Portugal Chile Finnland Jugoslawien Costa Rica Dänemark Niederlande Norwegen Schweden MASPunkte 48 47 46 46 45 45 44 43 43 42 42 41 40 39 38 37 34 31 28 26 21 21 16 14 8 5 Abb.

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