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This quantity brings jointly result of examine by means of anthropologists at the social lifetime of those who was once labelled 'part-Aborigines' or 'urban Aborigines'. matters mentioned comprise bases of identification, ties of relatives, constitution of group, methods of talking, ideals and emotions approximately state, and attitudes to the previous.

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2009) The Otaku Encyclopedia: An Insider’s Guide to the Subculture of Cool Japan, Tokyo, Kodansha International. Genda, Y. (2005) Hataraku Kajo¯: Otona no tame no Wakamono Tokuhon (Excessive Work: A Youth Reader for Adults), Tokyo, NTT Shuppan. Giddens, A. (1986) The Constitution of Society: Outline of the Theory of Structuration, Berkeley, University of California Press. Goodman, R. (1990) Japan’s International Youth: The Emergence of a New Class of Schoolchildren, Oxford, Clarendon Press. Goodman, R.

Not all these propositions are equally important to each of the youth problems we examine, but they are always present in some form. We intentionally focus here more on relatively brief episodes surrounding the production of youth problems – what might be called ‘the synchronic dimension’ – while acknowledging historical continuities. The final chapter of this volume considers in more depth the importance of studying youth issues in a diachronic fashion. While it is Japanese society that has provided the primary context in which the propositions below have been developed and tested, we believe that they are highly relevant to understanding the nature of youth problems in virtually any advanced society.

Ijime: the case of bullying Ijime has tended to be discussed in Japan as a unique ‘cultural’ phenomenon. 1 It was only from the mid-1980s, however, that the word in its noun form came into common circulation. The phenomenon – which had previously been seen as a natural element of the socialization process – became recognized as a ‘social problem’ that needed to be defined, measured and ‘treated’. 4 shows the number of newspaper reports on incidents related to bullying between 1980 and 2009, revealing that there were three ‘peaks’ of intensified reporting in this roughly 30-year period.

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