By Rosalie Wills, James A. Milke, Sara Royle, Kristin Steranka
This SpringerBrief provides info on a wide selection of dangers and the wear and tear strength because of set up of a photovoltaic (PV) process. the present install practices for PV structures on roofs create electric, hearth, structural, and weather-related dangers that don't comply to present codes, criteria and information files. capability hazards comprise structural loading, wind lots, hail, snow, particles accumulation, seismic risks, firefighting risks, and electric dangers. regardless of the elevated acclaim for PV structures after the environmental flow, learn indicates that the prices of putting in PV platforms outweigh the advantages. dangers of PV structures on roofs have prompted a number of incidents within the usa; the main striking in Bakersfield, California, and Mount Holly, North Carolina. Designed for hearth engineers and execs, top Practices for advertisement Roof-Mounted Photovoltaic process install deals suggestions to establish PV platforms correctly and sustainably.
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Additional info for Best Practices for Commercial Roof-Mounted Photovoltaic System Installation
Chapter 4 Hail Hail is another hazard that is introduced by weather conditions. Hail has the potential to damage PV systems. The impact of hail’s impulsive force acting on the PV system can cause cracking of PV systems. This can damage the PV system’s ability to convert energy as well as introduce exposed electrical hazards. The International Electrical Code (IEC) addresses how to conduct an impact test for PV systems. This impact test demonstrates that a PV system can withstand an expected hailstorm.
The minimum size test balls that were supposed to be used was 1¼ in. ice balls; this test used 1 in. and 11=3 in. ice balls. The size of the ball has a signiﬁcant affect on the impact energy transferred to the panel. Only eleven ice balls were used for testing, this is far less than what a PV system would have to withstand during a hailstorm. There are regions in the world that are prone to severe hail and could experience larger hailstones than the hailstones that are used in any of these tests.
Sherwood (2013) describes the experiments that were conducted: The new ﬁre classiﬁcation procedure requires the following tests be performed in order to derive a ﬁre classiﬁcation rating for the PV/roof system: • spread of flame test on the top surface of module or panel, • spread of flame test at roof and module or panel interface over representative steep or low sloped roof, • burning brand test on module surface over representative steep sloped roof, and • burning brand test between the module or panel and representative steep sloped roof.