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Install new nozzles to obtain a more uniform water pattern. Replace splash bars with self-extinguishing PVC cellular film fill. On old counterflow cooling towers, replace old spray type nozzles with new square spray ABS practically non-clogging nozzles. Replace slat type drift eliminators with low pressure drop, self extinguishing, PVC cellular units. 44 ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ Follow manufacturer’s recommmended clearances around cooling towers and relocate or modify structures that interfere with the air intake or exhaust.
For new projects, use of absorption chillers can facilitate working with a lower Contract kVA Demand, smaller transformer etc. leading to significant savings in the cost of the plants electrical installation; this should also be considered in calculation of savings. e. < -40 °C), the possibility of Hybrid Chillers can be considered. In Hybrid Chillers, the condensers of the low temperature vapour compression machines can be cooled by chilled water from Absorption Chillers. , with the availability of cheap natural gas, along with absorption chillers, the use of gas fired engine driven compressors is also being aggressively promoted.
Air may also be present because of imperfect evacuation before initial charging of the system or due to impurities in the refrigerant or oil. The non-condensibles in condensers add partial pressure to the refrigerant vapout and thus increase the pressure against which the compressor has to work. The heat transfer coefficient also drops as the refrigerant has to diffuse through non-condensibles to the tube surface before condensing. The methods used for air purging are: ♣ ♣ ♣ Direct venting of the air-refrigerant mixture, which is a primitive manual technique A small compressor draws a sample of the refrigerant gas and compresses the mixture, condensing as much as possible of the refrigerant, and vents the vapour mixture that is now rich in non-condensibles A low temperature evaporator, in-built in the system, condenses most of the refrigerant from the refrigerant-air mixture drawn from the condenser or receiver and vents the non-condensibles.