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By J. J. Moore

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B. 1971 Generaland Inorganic Chemistry. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. For self-test questions on this chapter, see Appendix 5. 2 Metallurgical T h e r m o d y n a m i c s Thermodynamics is the study of the energies involved in a reaction and, therefore, provides information regarding the driving force behind a reaction. By studying the energy requirements it is possible to determine the optimum conditions necessary to provide the desired reaction. e. H or enthalpy. e. S or entropy, often referred to as the degree of disorder.

In exothermic extraction processes calculation of AHT will make it possible to deduce fuel utilisation figures to allow for optimum operating temperatures. 3. 2 Example Does the enthalpy change of formation of water vapour increase or decrease with rise in temperature? H 2( g ) + | 0 2 ( g ) — > H 20 ( g ) AH* is negative at 298 Κ Using Kirchoff's equation ( 2 . 6 ) AH% = AHf9S+ACp(T2 = (-) +ACp(T2 - TO - Tx) and from equation ( 2 . 6 1 mol" 1 Substituting this value for ACp in equation ( 2 . 1(Γ2 - Γι) *If ACp is positive ( C ^ > ) , AH increases with temperature.

E. initial and final concentrations of the solution are known), under standard conditions. In fact as solutions are further diluted the enthalpy change becomes progressively smaller. Finally at infinite dilution the ions from the original crystalline solid (solute) are so widely separated as free ions in solution that they no longer interattract. Enthalpy changes of solution refer to the enthalpy change when one mole of solute is dissolved in a large enough volume of solvent to form a solution at infinite dilution.

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