By L. A. Utracki
This is often half 2 of a half set. half 1 ISBN is 1859574823
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Additional info for Clay-Containing Polymeric Nanocomposites Volume 2
5; y = 1 to 2; n = 1 to 10; and A = Cl-, Br-, NO3-, SO42-, CO32-. Suitable LDH may be a hydrotalcite or a hydrotalcite-like material. Before compounding with a polymeric matrix (≥ 70 wt%) LDH must be treated with organic intercalants, so at least 20% of the anions are either miscible or reactive with the matrix, and at least 5% of these anions contain a second chargecarrying group. Anions of carboxylic, sulfonic and phosphonic acids as well as hydrogen sulfates may be used. These anions may contain the alkyl or phenyl group with a reactive group, viz.
Hydroxy, amino, epoxy, vinyl, isocyanate, carboxy, hydroxy phenyl and anhydride. , ammonium, phosphonium, sulfonium, carboxylate, sulfonate, phosphonate and sulfate. It is expected that the second charge-carrying group repels the LDH sheets, thus helps the exfoliation process. The polymeric matrix may be selected from between: PA, PO, PEST, PC, TPU, vinyl polymers, and polyepoxides. The CPNC of this invention may be prepared by either melt compounding organo-LDH with molten polymer in a TSE or by mixing it with a monomer, which subsequently is polymerised.
For example, the rubber nanocomposite may be used in applications where a general rubber is used, but it is particularly effective for improving dynamic and barrier properties to gas or liquids. The low MW guest molecule must have at least one polar group at its main and/or side chain, viz. hydroxyl (-OH), halogen (-F, -Cl, -Br, -I), carboxyl (-COOH), anhydrous-carboxylic acid (MAH), thiol (-SH), epoxy, and primary, secondary or tertiary amine (-NH2, -NH-, =N-). The chain length of the guest molecule should be at least as long as that of the intercalant alkyl, but shorter that that of the main polymer in the matrix.