By D. Raymond Sharp, J. L. Raikes and D. J. Silverleaf (Auth.)
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Extra info for Concrete in Highway Engineering
Modern small weighbatching plant is now freely available, either built into concrete mixers or as a separate piece of equipment. The water/cement ratio by weight should not exceed 0-55 for plain concrete to ensure satisfactory durability, but up to this limit the amount of water to be added is determined by the criterion of correct workability. Higher water/cement ratios can be used with air entrained concrete, (5) but a maximum of 0-60 is probably desirable. The workability of the concrete must be high enough to ensure that a fully compacted material is obtained and to give a smooth surface 50 Concrete in Highway Engineering finish on the slab surface.
It is not always essential to compact the two layers of concrete separately but two-layer compaction is usually necessary in slabs 9 in. or more thick. Finishing should be carried out continuously over as long a length of concrete as possible. Mechanically driven vibrators can be used for finishing the surface as well as for compaction. The finishing pass should be made soon after the compacting operation and the beam should be tilted slightly so that the leading edge is about f in. higher than the trailing edge to facilitate the striking off of any small quantities of excess concrete.
1 3 . Lowering the water table level by installing drains. If the seepage zone is wide, it is generally possible to keep the seepage water about 4 ft below formation level by constructing intercepting drains. A high water table can also be lowered by the installation of a drainage system (Fig. 13). The actual spacing and depths of drains will depend on the soil conditions and width of the formation. For example, in the case of dual carriageways, drains may be necessary under the central reservation as well as under the edges of the formation.