Download Constructional Morphology and Evolution by N. Schmidt-Kittler, K. Vogel (auth.), Prof. Dr. Norbert PDF

By N. Schmidt-Kittler, K. Vogel (auth.), Prof. Dr. Norbert Schmidt-Kittler, Prof. Dr. Klaus Vogel (eds.)

Constructional morphology explains good points of organisms from a constructional and practical standpoint. by way of actual research it explains the operational points of natural constructions - how they could practice the actions organisms are anticipated to fulfil on the way to live on of their atmosphere. Constructional morphology additionally explains recommendations and constraints throughout the evolution decided by way of inner constructional wishes, ontogenetic calls for, inherited organizational preconditions and environmental clues.

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Extra resources for Constructional Morphology and Evolution

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Nachtigall The functional backing up of a structure is, of course, prone to possible misinterpretation, especially in the case where a correlation cannot be proved experimentally. The danger of this happening is particularly great in the functional interpretation of fossil structures and in the hypothetical reconstruction of evolutionary changes. Nevertheless, functional morphology is indispensable if we are to attain as complete an understanding of evolution as possible. From the very beginning, the functional way of thinking and experimental results of physical sciences were incorporated in the scientific research of biological phenomena 11,20 and have been present throughout the history of science.

They influence the details of the particular evolutionary process, and hence its outcome, but they do not bring about change in a population from the ancestral state to its descendent state. Thus in the process of speciation, the presence of an external isolating barrier separating the original species into two isolated segments constitutes an essential boundary condition. But the existence of this boundary conditions will never lead to speciation - it is not a cause, and by itself will never bring about the needed modifications of these isolated populations.

Gutmann und Bonik 1980). ). 31 Physical formulations which point in the right direction, but which are by far not sufficient for a satisfactory explanation have been made for example by Bonik (1978). 32 A part of the wing mechanism of calliphorid flies can be treated as a gear-box construction (Wisser and Nachtigall 1990). 33 To define hierarchy of complexity it has been suggested to distinguish between appartuses and machines. Schmidt-Kittler states that machines are simply more complex variants of apparatuses normally working on the basis of more than one principle (Schmidt-Kittler, this VoL).

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