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By Charles L. Glenn

Via a ancient study of very varied pairs of ecu nations, Glenn illuminates the debate surrounding educational freedom and a State-controlled version. >

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In 1781 he published the first version of his novel about education, Leonard and Gertrud, which was widely read and gave him—as Émile had given Rousseau—a reputation as an educator despite his lack of practical success. In 1792, the revolutionary French National Assembly made Pestalozzi an honorary citizen of France, and, with the French occupation of Switzerland in 1798, he was asked to take on the education of a group of orphans in an abandoned convent at Stans. 65 The Bern government then gave him the opportunity to try out his pedagogical methods with primary-level children in Burgdorf; after some months with little success, he was fortunate to gain a young disciple who did the actual teaching; in 1800 the government provided him with a chateau and the opportunity to create a small teacher-training institute.

This provoked a strong reaction against the idea of state control of education, most famously expressed by Wilhelm von Humboldt whose objections will be discussed subsequently. 46 A fundamental distinction in Zedlitz’s program, and, in fact, throughout most of the nineteenth century, was between rural and urban schooling. Rural schools were exclusively elementary—until well into the nineteenth century most had only one teacher—while most urban schools were what we could call secondary schools with preparatory classes at the elementary level.

But I didn’t want only this, 24 Contrasting Models of State and School and wanted during and through their work to warm their hearts and develop [literally, unfold: entfalten] their minds. ”64 Unfortunately, this effort failed, and Pestalozzi was forced to support his family by his writing. In 1781 he published the first version of his novel about education, Leonard and Gertrud, which was widely read and gave him—as Émile had given Rousseau—a reputation as an educator despite his lack of practical success.

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