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Extra info for Cooperation and Deception: From Evolution to Mechanisms (Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society series B)
There are also data to suggest that cleaner service quality becomes better when clients are more scarce (Soares et al. 2008). Similarly, in the social behaviour of vervet monkeys, scarce food providers were found to receive more grooming (Fruteau et al. 2009). Such dynamics and adjustments represent potentially general properties of biological markets and are therefore of broad interest. 3. BY-PRODUCT MUTUALISM, PSEUDO-RECIPROCITY AND DEFENCES AGAINST EXPLOITATION By-product effects are present when traits that benefit their bearers directly, additionally impose benefits or costs on other individuals.
Soc. B 365, 2663–2674. (doi:10. 0157) Morales, M. , Barone, J. L. & Henry, C. S. 2008 Acoustic alarm signalling facilitates predator protection of treehoppers by mutualist ant bodyguards. Proc. R. Soc. B 275, 1935–1941. 0410) Murray, M. G. ) and fig wasps (Chalcidoidea, Agaonidae): hypotheses for an ancient symbiosis. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 26, 69– 81. 1111/j. x) Nicklen, E. F. & Wagner, D. 2006 Conflict resolution in an ant-plant interaction: Acacia constricta traits reduce ant costs to reproduction.
B (2010) significance of the developments we describe for the study of the evolution of cooperation. 2. THE RELEVANCE OF THE MARKET IDEA Over the years, the process of partner choice (Bull & Rice 1991) and the concept of a biological market (Noe¨ et al. 1991; Noe¨ & Hammerstein 1994, 1995) have gained increasing prominence as explanations for the evolutionary stability of cooperation. Biological markets are of course different from the idealized view of a market in classical economics (Bowles & Hammerstein 2003), where there can be binding contracts between buyer and seller and where supply meets demand at an equilibrium price.