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By Immanuel Kant

This solely new translation of Critique of natural cause is the main actual and informative English translation ever produced of this epochal philosophical textual content. notwithstanding its easy, direct sort will make it compatible for all new readers of Kant, the interpretation monitors a philosophical and textual sophistication that may enlighten Kant students besides. This translation recreates so far as attainable a textual content with a similar interpretative nuances and richness because the unique.

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This is not adequate either, since it fails to see that nothing more than die properties of an object are necessary to determine what predicates should be asserted of it. But it already reveals Kant's charac­ teristic tendency to convert ontological questions into epistemological questions - that is, the transformation of questions about what sorts of things diere must be into questions about the conditions under which it is possible for us to make claims to knowledge about things. The de­ velopment of this tendency into a full-blown philosophical method will be the key to the Critique of Pure Reason, in which, as Kant is to say, "The proud name of ontology, which presumes to offer synthetic a pri24 25 26 27 25 ^ > Bogazici Universitesi KutQphanesi ^ Introduction ori cognition of things in general in a systematic doctrine .

S 49 Kant illustrates the differences between mathematical and philo­ sophical method with three examples. First, following Crusius, he ar­ gues that metaphysics depends not only on two distinct formal or logical principles (as Kant had already argued in 1755), but also on many "first material principles of human reason" that are "indemon­ strable," such as ""a body is compound. " ° Second, he reiterates his argu­ ment of the Only Possible Basis that from the argument for the existence of God as the ground of all possibility other predicates of God can be derived - this is supposed to show how from a certain though incom­ plete consciousness of some of a thing's characteristics other certain judgments can be derived - but also adds that in further judgments, about God's justice and goodness, only an "approximation to certainty" is possible.

Changed from an ontological to an epistemological key, this argument would become the basis of the "Refutation of Idealism" in the second edition of the Critique of Pure Reason. So Kant's first piece of philosophy already contained some of Kant's most characteristic criticisms of his predecessors as well as some of the substantive conclusions of his mature work. What was still needed was a new philosophical method that could get him beyond his own still shaky arguments for these conclusions to a totally new foundation for them.

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