By Christian F. Rostboll
The 1st sustained examine the connection among deliberative democratic idea and the subject of freedom.
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Extra info for Deliberative Freedom: Deliberative Democracy As Critical Theory
6. Finally, deliberative democracy cannot do without aggregation. No proponent of deliberative democracy believes that we can do away with mechanisms of aggregation in complex modern societies. 36 However, it is important to see that aggregation does not constitute a deﬁnitive end to the political process. Aggregation or voting might be necessary to come to a decision, but this does not mean that deliberation about the issue has come to an end. Everyone should remain free to criticize any decision made and to attempt to change it.
That is part of what the theory of deliberative democracy should attempt to do. Some criticisms of deliberative democracy seem to rely on a failure to recognize this point. Adam Przeworski and Susan Stokes, for example, both think that deliberative democracy is especially susceptible to manipulation of preferences. 3 Both critics go on to accuse deliberative democrats for not having considered the danger of manipulation in public communication. 5 Since this is so often overlooked—and since it has moved to the background of even Habermas’s own later writings—I argue for reviving some of the earlier concerns of critical theory (see especially Chapter 5).
As I argue in the next Deliberation, Aggregation, and Negative Freedom 23 section, this connects these models of democracy to the negative freedom tradition in the history of political thought. 2. A second reason to go beyond the sharp transformation and aggregation dichotomy is that the transformation of preferences in deliberation is often taken to be a matter of moving from disagreement to agreement, and it is thought that if there is agreement, then there is no reason for concern. 12 And deliberative democrats do, at least from a cursory reading, give us reason to believe that the aim of deliberation is always to go from disagreement to agreement.