By Anthony S. Travis (auth.), Anthony S. Travis, Harm G. Schröter, Ernst Homburg, Peter J. T. Morris (eds.)
The editors desire to thank the ecu technology beginning for its help of the programme at the Evolution of Chemistry in Europe, 1789-1939, in addition to for sponsoring the ebook of this quantity. throughout the subdivision of this initiative that offers in particular with chemical it's been attainable for historians of technology, expertise, company and economics to proportion usually extensively differing viewpoints and boost consensus throughout disciplinary and cultural obstacles. The contents of this quantity are in line with the 3rd of 3 workshops that experience thought of the emergence of the trendy eu chemical sooner than 1939, the 1st held in Liege (1994), the second one in Maastricht (1995), and the 3rd in Strasbourg (1996). All participants and contributors are thanked for his or her participation in usually energetic and informative debates. The beneficiant hospitality of the ecu technology starting place and its employees in Strasbourg is gratefully stated. creation rising chemical wisdom and the improvement of chemical undefined, and especially the interplay among them, provide wealthy fields of research for the historian. this is often mirrored within the contents of the 3 workshops facing the emergence of chemical held less than the aegis of the ecu technological know-how Foundation's Evolution of Chemistry in Europe, 1789-1939, programme. the 1st workshop centred normally on technology for undefined, 1789- 1850, and the second one at the two-way site visitors among technology and undefined, 1850-1914. The 3rd workshop, facing the interval 1900-1939, covers related concerns, yet inside diversified, and wider, contexts.
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Extra info for Determinants in the Evolution of the European Chemical Industry, 1900–1939: New Technologies, Political Frameworks, Markets and Companies
1914-1918 (London: Brassey's, 1988). Roy MacLeod, "The Scientists Go To War," paper delivered to the Science and War conference, sponsored by the FRN (Sweden) and the International Council for Science Policy Studies, Malmo, Sweden, June 1988. S. Travis et al. ), Determinants in the Evolution of the European Chemical Industry, 1900-1939, 25-49. @ 1998 Kluwer Academic Publishers. 26 R. M. MacLEOD science. The memory of chemical weapons remains among the most enduring legacies of the literature of the war.
225; Lothar Burchardt, "Professionalisierung oder Berufskonstruktion? Das Beispiel aes Chemikers im Wilhelminischen Deutschland," Geschichte und Gesellscha/t, 6, (1988), 326-348. Donald Cardwell suggests there were 4,000 chemists in Germany's 40 R. M. MacLEOD We know very little about most of these men, and a good deal about a few, notably the academics - in Germany including Haber, Fischer, Nernst and WilisUitter, in the USA, Lewis and Conant, and in England, Hartley and his senior officers. Apart from these 'officers,' we have yet to learn about the "other ranks" in the chern ical factories and laboratories.
Proceedings a/the Institute a/Chemistry, 1918, (iv), 30. However, at the end of the war, the Institute reported that 800 members (25 per cent of total membership) had been on active service. Proceedings 0/ the Institute a/Chemistry, 1919 (iv), 30. 56 Haber, Poisonous Cloud, op. cit. (II), p. 107. Jean-Claude Guedon, "Conceptual and institutional obstacles to the emergence of unit operations in Europe," in William F. , History a/Chemical Engineering (Washington, DC, 1980), p. 64. 57 58 Klaus Buchholz, "Ver/ahrenstechnik (Chemical Engineering) - Its development, present state and structure," Social Studies 0/ Science, 9 (1979), (I), 33-62.