By Alistair Cole, Ian Stafford
This e-book examines the improvement of Welsh devolution within the context of serious fiscal and political uncertainty. Drawing on examine performed over greater than a decade, it explores no matter if Welsh devolution has constructed the ability to withstand inner and exterior pressures and to proceed to pursue a particular political and coverage time table.
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Additional resources for Devolution and Governance: Wales between Capacity and Constraint
156–157) argued that the fragility of the ‘devolution machine’ was shaped by three factors: the financial basis of the devolved settlement and the continued failure to reform the Barnett formula; the continued development of the European Union and the increased Europeanisation of social policy; and finally the vulnerability of the settlement to intergovernmental conflict. , 2012a). In addition to these material indicators of divergence, the first decade of devolution provided clear evidence of constructed policy divergence, by which we understand a specific form of policy learning whereby organisations and institutions identify themselves against perceived negative models.
But these formal or material indicators partially miss the point. The small country governance frame provided invaluable constructivist insights into visions of the development of Wales as a polity, a vision that blurred the reality of formal boundaries distinguishing regions and states. 10 Parties and leaders: prophets and craftsmen of divergence The most significant development since 1999 has been the emergence of a recognisable Welsh political and partisan leadership, symbolised for most of the period by the figure of Labour First Minister Rhodri Morgan and the rhetoric of ‘clear red water’, which rose to prominence following a speech by Morgan at Swansea University in December 2002.
The breakthrough of Plaid Cymru from the late 1960s reflected concerns beyond those of the language or the preservation of rural communities, though these remained important (Christiansen, 1998; Wyn Jones, 2014). Welsh distinctiveness was embodied in a tradition of radical politics that developed in the nineteenth century, linked first to Welsh nonconformity and the Liberals, later on to Labour and the industrial working class (Evans, 2000). By the late twentieth century Wales had a much more distinctive sense of its own identity and history than one hundred years ago.