By James Y. Murdoch, Ying Bai, Khairul Basar, Liquan Chen, Loredana De Rogatis
This publication is dedicated to the physics, chemistry and fabrics technology of diffusion, mass delivery, and reactivity of solids, together with: physics and chemistry of defects in solids; reactions in and on solids, e.g. intercalation, corrosion, oxidation, sintering; and ion shipping measurements, mechanisms and idea.
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Additional resources for Diffusion and Reactivity of Solids
Figure 22 compares the XRD patterns of commercial LiCoO2, high-energy ball-milled LiCoO2, solvent-soaked bare and Al2O3-coated nano-LiCoO2. Comparison of the XRD patterns of commercial and nanosized LiCoO2 indicates that high-energy ball-milling does not damage the structure of commercial LiCoO2 or induce obvious variation in its lattice parameter or generate new species. However high-energy ball-milling leads to obvious broadening of diffraction lines because the LiCoO2 particles have been nanosized.
70 However, it seems that no authors have reported the formation of Co2O3 and Co3O4 in solvent- or electrolyte-soaked LiCoO2 or electrochemically cycled LiCoO2 electrodes. Based on the relative intensity of the strongest diffraction peaks of Co2O3 and Co3O4, their contents are comparable to that of the residual LiCoO2 in the soaked material though the exact content of each cannot be determined by XRD. This agrees well with the above ICP analysis. 0780Å, respectively. 0379Å), these parameters do not show obvious changes.
With the increase of the thickness of the shell composed of Co2O3/Co3O4, the thickness of the surface film also increases. On the other hand, growth of the surface layer and the shell makes it difficult for the Li+ ions to transport from the Li-rich core to the surface and for the solvent molecules to penetrate the surface film and reach the particle surface, the rate of the solvent-electrode reaction becomes slow and finally the reaction terminates. This process does not apply to the electron tunneling effect.