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Experimental results are usually obtained by weighing the sediment, so mass concentration is the most appropriate here. Optical, acoustic, resistive and volumetric techniques, however, measure primarily the volume concentration. In discussions of the settled bed, the porosity is most often used. When considering buoyancy effects, the bulk density is most appropriate. The porosity of settled sand beds depends on the degree of sorting and the degree of compaction. A compilation of the average porosities measured in natural sand beds is given in Table 5.

The angles of the lee slopes of ripples, dunes and sandwaves, and the angle of slope of the conical scour hole around a circular vertical pile, are Table 5. Porosity of natural sand beds Loosely packed Average Densely packed Well-sorted Average Well-mixed 0-46 0-42 0-40 0-43 0-40 0-37 0-38 0-33 0-30 Sources: Terzagh and Peck (1967), Shepard (1963), Sleath (1984), Dyer (1986); measurements at HR. 35 DYNAMICS OF MARINE SANDS given by 4>T. The value of 0 r is always less than 0i9 with a typical value for natural sand in water of about 28°.

Some of the most useful for sediment transport purposes in shelf waters are given in Table 2. Samples were mainly obtained by the use of tallow on the bottom of the sounding lead in the days of lead-line soundings, and their validity today should be treated with caution. Mixed sediments can be classified according to the modified Folk scheme (BGS, 1987). In this, the proportions of mud r 90% 80- 6050% / 40- 2010% 0001 / 1 01 Particle size: mm Figure 5. Example of grain-size distribution 30 10 PROPERTIES OF WATER AND SAND Table 2.

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