By Billy C. Langley
Electric troubleshooting is potentially the main missed quarter of keeping air-con and refrigeration gear. This textual content explains and illustrates tools for troubleshooting the whole spectrum of electric or digital circuits of those structures. entire sections supply assurance of electric basics, single-phase electrical vehicles, three-phase vehicles, keep watch over units, electric regulate circuits, use of schematic diagrams in troubleshooting, ice makers, strong nation electronics, and simple digital controls. The author's transparent, concise insurance of controls allows you to quick comprehend either how a selected kind of keep watch over works, and the way it's utilized in the process. you will discover a wealth of invaluable directions for making operational tests and troubleshooting for correct operation. The e-book is comfortably divided into application-specific devices, making it effortless to speedy locate details particular to a specific task to hand.
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Additional info for Electrical Applications for Air Conditioning & Refrigeration Systems
The electrical characteristics on an electric circuit that are the most important to refrigeration, heating, and air conditioning technicians are voltage, amperage, and resistance. Electric meters are manufactured to measure either one or a combination which will include all three of these characteristics. The single use types are generally easier to use than the multiple use types. Also, when a multiple use meter must be repaired, some method must be devised to take the proper readings while the meter is in the repair shop.
Figure 4-2 Outside force on an electron. Orbital Shells: Electrons are located in the atomic shells that surround the nucleus of every atom. Each atom can have up to seven shells, depending on the nature of the element. See Table 4-1. ElementElectrons per shell12345671234567 79 Gold, Au28183218192Uranium, U2818322192 80 Mercury, Hg28183218293Neptunium, Np2818322292 81 Thallium, Tl28183218394Plutonium, Pu2818322392 82 Lead, Pb28183218495Americium, Am2818322492 83 Bismuth, Bi28183218596Curium, Cm2818322592 84 Polonium, Po28183218697Berkelium, Bk2818322692 85 Astatine, At28183218798Californium, Cf2818322792 86 Radon, Rn28183218899Einsteinium, E2818322892 87 Francium, Fr2818321881100Fermium, Fm2818322992 88 Radium, Ra2818321882101Mendelevium, Mv2818323092 89 Actinium, Ac2818321892102Nobelium, No2818323192 90 Thorium, Th2818321892103Lawrencium, Lw2818323292 91 Protactinium, Pa2818321892 The electrons located in shells closer to the nucleus are more difficult to free because of the strong attraction to the positive charge of the nucleus.
When extremely small resistance is involved the microhm (W) which is one-millionth of an ohm is used. When larger resistance readings are involved the (MW) which is one million ohms or a megohm is used. Units of resistance are shown in Table 5-3. 5 Meg A circuit has a resistance of one ohm when an EMF of 1 volt causes a current of 1 ampere to flow through it. Figure 5-8 shows two electric circuits with the same voltage but different resistances, and current flow. The different current flow is because of the difference in resistance.