By Tharwat Tadros
An authoritative and complete reference correct to all scientists and engineers within the box. This encyclopedia not just is helping chemistry, fabrics technology and physics researchers to appreciate the rules, but additionally presents training engineers with the mandatory info for imposing useful purposes, such as
- Food and agrochemicals
- Polymers and ceramics
- Cosmetics and detergents
- Paints and coatings
- Pharmaceuticals and drug delivery
In addition, the encyclopedia is a vital reference for business chemists and chemical engineers confronted with a large number of business platforms of a colloidal nature.
As vast because the variety of functions that colloid and interface technology has is the diversity of medical disciplines that give a contribution to investigate and improvement during this box. those surround chemistry, physics, biology and arithmetic in addition to nanoscience and nanotechnology. The encyclopedia offers easy-to-digest details for assembly those interdisciplinary challenges.
While delivering various concise definitions of key phrases, the encyclopedia additionally beneficial properties greater than 40 in-depth essays on subject matters starting from Agrochemical Formulations to Zeta capability. All entries are cross-referenced and contain chosen references to unique literature in addition to synonyms.
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Extra info for Encyclopedia of Colloid and Interface Science
The dead time is simply the time required to detach the bubble after it has reached its hemispherical shape. A schematic representation of the principle of maximum bubble pressure is shown in Fig. 7, which shows the evolution of a bubble at the tip of a capillary. The figure also shows the variation of pressure p in the bubble with time. At t ¼ 0 (initial state), the pressure is low (note that the pressure is equal to 2g/r, since r of the bubble is large p is small). At t ¼ t (smallest bubble radius that is equal to the tube radius), p reaches a maximum.
C. 1 1/Z2. This is referred to as the Schultze-Hardy rule. One can define a rate constant for flocculation: ko ¼ rapid rate of flocculation (in the absence of an energy barrier) (von Smoluchowski 1914) and k ¼ slow rate of flocculation (in the presence of an energy barrier): ko ¼ WðThe Stability ratioÞ k (28) Note that W increases as Gmax increases. The stability of colloidal dispersions can be quantitatively assessed from plots of log W versus log C, as illustrated in Fig. 23. The two main criteria for electrostatic stabilization can be considered: (1) High surface or Stern potential (zeta potential) (Hunter 1981) and high surface charge.
28 The interfacial A 36 Agrochemical Formulations GIV 2 formation 1 I GII 1 2 breakdown (flocc + coal) II GI GIII Agrochemical Formulations, Fig. 1 to few mm. , positive) that is equal to DA g12 (where DA ¼ A2ÀA1) and an entropy of dispersion term which is also positive (since producing a large number of droplets is accompanied by an increase in configurational entropy) which is equal to T DSconf. From the second law of thermodynamics, D Gform ¼ DA g12 ÀTD Sconf (31) In most cases, DAg12 ) T DSconf, which means that DGform is positive, that is, the formation of emulsions is non-spontaneous and the system is thermodynamically unstable.