Download Energy Technology 2011: Carbon Dioxide and Other Greenhouse by Neale R. Neelameggham, Cynthia K. Belt, Mark Jolly, Ramana PDF

By Neale R. Neelameggham, Cynthia K. Belt, Mark Jolly, Ramana G. Reddy, Yurko

  • Approaches on carbon dioxide (CO2) emission aid in steel construction through better power potency in existence cycle gas use, mark downs in carbonate-based flux/raw fabric utilization, in addition to discovering thermodynamically possible reactions resulting in decrease emissions.
  • Energy saving ideas for extraction and processing of ferrous and nonferrous metals and different materials
  • Capture, conservation, and use of warmth generated from processing


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Extra info for Energy Technology 2011: Carbon Dioxide and Other Greenhouse Gas Reduction Metallurgy and Waste Heat Recovery

Example text

Figure 4. Fire triangle (courtesy of Wikimedia Commons). The reaction rate depends on the mean species concentration of the mixture and the local mean temperature. The concentration field and the progress of chemical reaction are affected by the topology of the turbulent flow field [3]. Ignition processes are usually very complex and involve many intricate physical and chemical steps [4]. These steps take a finite amount of time and the period between the start of injection and the start of combustion is referred to as ignition delay time.

Load or charge preheating offers another method of heat recycling. Usually charge preheating usingfluegases requires use of an external preheater where the charge material is preheated to remove moisture (drying) and increase the temperature before charging it in a furnace or an oven. Charge preheating is limited by the available space, limits on material handling equipment and cost of installing and operating the preheating system. For preheating charge materials, required changes can be expensive.

This enables the operation of the cycle at a much lower temperatures than a steam Rankine cycle. Thus, the ORC can utilize the energy from low temperature waste heat sources to produce electricity. The Rankine cycle is comprised of four main components: evaporator or boiler, turbine or expander, condenser and pump. Depending on the working fluid, a recuperator may be advantageous, depending on the residual enthalpy of the fluid as it exits the expander. In ORC systems the heat source is coupled to the boiler to evaporate the working fluid before it is expanded in the turbine.

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