By John A. Johnson, Alan Tomsett
This compilation is the main entire historic selection of papers written on basic aluminum technological know-how and expertise. it's a definitive reference within the box of aluminum construction and comparable mild metals applied sciences and incorporates a powerful mixture of fabrics technological know-how and functional, utilized expertise. Written for fabrics scientists and engineers, metallurgists, mechanical engineers, aerospace and car engineers, electric and electronics engineers, this quantity is a necessary source for the worldwide aluminum and lightweight metals industries.Content:
Read Online or Download Essential Readings in Light Metals: Electrode Technology for Aluminum Production, Volume 4 PDF
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Extra resources for Essential Readings in Light Metals: Electrode Technology for Aluminum Production, Volume 4
Excessive dusting, and anode side oxidation were noted in the potrooms. To increase anode density an? strength it was necessary to modify the aggregate size distribution by increasing the amount of fine fraction in the aggregate composition when this type of coke had to be processed. Alternatively it was blended with a denser coke prior to being fed to the rotary kiln calciner. Needle coke from such aromatic feedstocks as decant oil or thermal tar, the typical raw material for graphite production, has not been used for aluminum cell anode manufacture because of the high price it demands.
There is very little counter-current gas flow inside a shaft calciner. The only flow is VM traveling up through the coke bed before it enters the top flue walls. • There is virtually no carryover of fine green coke into the flue walls in a shaft calciner. • The yield of calcined coke per ton of green coke is significantly higher in a shaft calciner. A typical yield in a rotary kiln (dry basis) is 77-79% which represents the yield after loss of VM and fines. The comparable yield for a shaft calciner is 85-88%.
Both industries require major capital investments, continue to increase production to spread the capital costs over more production and go through cycles of low product value due to periods of over capacity. The major operating cost for both industries is raw material costs. 2. 3. 4. The petroleum oil refining and marketing industry is continuously trying to improve profitability by improving refinery margins. The cost of crude oil to the refinery is approximately 80% of a refinery’s operating cost.