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Lang (1957a) suggested that the bunching of retreating or advancing atomic steps, frequently occurring on a crystal surface inclined at small angles, with densely packed atomic planes, resulting in microscopically observable steps, and a mistake in the early stages of step formation, may be held responsible for continuous spiral steps. Chemical etch spirals have also been reported on a variety of other crystals (Patel and Bahl 1965b, Patel and Raju 1966, Khukhryanskii et al. 1967, Patel and Chaudhari 1969b, Patel and Agarwal 1971, Ives and Ramachandran 1967, Jeszensky 1958,1972), and it is believed (Patel and Bahl 1965b, Patel and Raju 1966, Patel and Chaudhari 1969b, Patel and Agarwal 1971, Ives and Ramachandran 1967, Jeszensky 1958, 1972) that the spiral pits nucleate at dislocations terminating on the surface.

9. Topographic techniques The basis for detection of dislocations by X-ray topographic techniques is the difference of the intensity of X-rays diffracted or transmitted by the perfect regions of the crystal remote from dislocations, and by imperfect regions near dislocations. The techniques yield an unmagnified topographical projection on high-resolution, X-ray-sensitive, photographic emulsion plates, where dis­ locations appear as contrasting dark lines. Several distinct methods with many variations in technique have been developed during the last thirty years.

48) where η > 2, and R does not depend on δ. (b) σ is large, but still small enough to use the approximation l n ( l + σ) « σ. Then RocDc0a/b. 49) Thus R is inversely proportional to δ and directly proportional to σ. (ii) The bulk diffusion model of Chernov.

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