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By Professor Eviatar Nevo, Professor Abraham B. Korol, Dr. Avigdor Beiles, Dr. Tzion Fahima (auth.)

This booklet is set the contribution to evolutionary idea and agricultural know-how of 1 of humankind's so much dramatic imitations of the evolu­ tionary approach, specifically crop domestication, as exemplified via the progenitor of wheat, Triticum dicoccoides. This species is a massive version organism and it's been studied on the Institute of Evolution, college of Haifa, for the reason that 1979. The domestication via people of untamed crops to cultivated ones over the past ten millennia is likely one of the most sensible demonstrations of evolution. it's a strategy that has been condensed in time and complicated through synthetic instead of usual choice. Plant and animal domestication revolutionized human cultural evolution and is the key issue underlying human civilization. A post-Pleistocene worldwide upward push in temperature following the ice age, i.e., climatic-environmental components, can have triggered the growth of econom­ ically vital thermophilous crops and in flip promoted advanced forag­ ing and plant cultivation. The shift from foraging to regular creation resulted in an incipient agriculture various in time in a number of a part of the realm. within the Levant, agriculture constructed out of a radical really expert exploitation of crops and animals. Natufian sedentism, by means of speedy inhabitants development and source pressure, precipitated via the increasing wasteland, coupled with to be had grinding know-how, could have prompted plant domestication.

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Extra info for Evolution of Wild Emmer and Wheat Improvement: Population Genetics, Genetic Resources, and Genome Organization of Wheat’s Progenitor, Triticum dicoccoides

Sample text

Central) Range Large pop. ") (= central) Range Medium pop. ) Range Small pop. ) (+ Turkey) Range Small pop. 1. 010 Multilocus No. of organization [X(2}] PLb LD '" 8: 3'" "0 ... -Z 3 0 0 >-0 ~ t:I p.. 2. Stepwise discriminant analysis of allozyme allele frequencies of T. dicoccoides in 37 populations, between marginal-central populations in Israel and Turkey, based on 22 loci and 34 alleles. The analysis includes: one cold steppic, ten western marginal, eight eastern and southern marginal, four Turkish, and 14 central populations.

This would unravel patterns and forces driving its genome evolution and lay open the full potential of its genetic resources for utilization. 1 Origin Genetic and morphological evidence clearly indicates that the cultivated tetraploid turgidum wheats (both hulled dicoccum forms and free threshing durum varieties) are closely related to the wild wheat that is native to the Near East and traditionally called T. dicoccoides (Korn) Aaronsohn (wild emmer wheat) (for review see Zohary 1969; Chapman et al.

Dicoccoides. This combined evidence justifies its traditional ranking as a biological species which was the progenitor, not the derivative, of T. turgidum, as is implied in the name T. turgidum subsp. dicoccoides. What is the unique ecological niche of T. dicoccoides in nature? 3 Ecology Triticum dicoccoides (Figs. 3) is more restricted in distribution and ecology than wild einkorn, T. boeticum, and wild barley, Hordeum spontaneum. It is found in Israel and Syria, which are its centers of distribution based on genetic diversity (Nevo and Beiles 1989; Nevo 1998a), Jordan, Lebanon, south-east Turkey, northern Iraq, and western Iran (Fig.

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