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By Agnes Wong

Eye stream Disorders, by means of Dr. Agnes Wong, fills a superb void within the Ophthalmology and Neurology literature by way of providing eye circulate problems in a full-color, hugely illustrative layout. this article explains eye circulate problems in a concise but accomplished demeanour, which makes it a great reference e-book and a good studying textual content for somebody attempting to grasp the difficult dating among eye circulation issues, and their underlying neuroanatomy and pathophysiology. Its easy-to-read and ordinary strategy will entice experts in Ophthalmology, Neurology, and Neurosurgery who want a fast reference on much less prevalent scientific difficulties.

Key positive aspects include:
Provides a coherent, concise, and straightforward to assimilate description and rationalization of other eye flow disorders
Presents over a hundred full-color medical photos, radiographs, and colour illustrations highlighting pertinent anatomy and mind pathways
Highlights key info and demanding gains via containers, tables, and algorithms

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Thus, a lesion in the MLF or midbrain causes a contralesional OTR. For example, a right MLF lesion results in a left OTR with hypotropia of the left eye, excyclotorsion of the left eye, and left head tilt. 42 Part I The Six Eye Movement Systems Eye Movements from Stimulation of the Left Utricular Nerve RE LE Redrawn from Suzuki JI, Tokumasu K, Goto K. Eye movements from single utricular nerve stimulation in the cat. Acta Otolaryngol. 1969; 68:350–62. Stimulating the left utricular nerve results in: ■ ■ ■ Left eye (ipsilateral eye): incyclotorsion (superior oblique) > elevation (superior rectus) > adduction (medial rectus) Right eye (contralateral eye): excyclotorsion (inferior oblique) > depression (inferior rectus) > abduction (lateral rectus) Left (ipsilateral) head tilt: activation of ipsilateral neck flexors and contralateral neck extensors Clinical Points A lesion of the right utricular nerve leads to unopposed action of the left utricular nerve, and results in a right ocular tilt reaction, which is characterized by: 1.

J Neurophysiol. With permission of the American Physiological Society. 10 Eye Movements from Stimulation of the Left Utricular Nerve Electrical stimulation of the left utricular nerve leads to a large incyclotorsion in the ipsilateral (left) eye and excyclotorsion in the contralateral (right) eye; an intermediate amount of elevation in the ipsilateral eye and depression in the contralateral eye; and a small adduction in the ipsilateral eye and abduction in the contralateral eye. Muscle tension also exhibits corresponding changes during stimulation: a large increase in the ipsilateral superior oblique and contralateral inferior oblique, a moderate increase in the ipsilateral superior rectus and contralateral inferior rectus, and a small increase in the ipsilateral medial rectus and contralateral lateral rectus.

Involuntary disruption of normal fixation may cause oscillopsia, an illusion of movement of the stationary environment. Oscillopsia can be caused by ocular oscillations, which include (1) nystagmus, sustained oscillation initiated by slow eye movements; (2) saccadic intrusion, intermittent oscillation initiated by fast eye movements; and (3) saccadic oscillation, sustained oscillation initiated by fast eye movements. Oscillopsia can also occur in patients with peripheral or central vestibular dysfunction, as well as in patients with central lesion, such as seizure or occipital lobe infarct.

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