By S. Dithmar, F.G. Holz
The know-how of angiographic platforms has been enhanced vastly simply in the earlier few years. This has allowed drastically elevated degrees of picture solution for either fluorescein and indocyanine eco-friendly angiography.This new atlas through Dithmar and Holz covers the fundamental rules of the hot tools for fluorescein- and indocyanine green-angiography, in addition to the excessive answer imaging of fundus autofluorescence.The angiographic indicators of retinal and choroidal illnesses are illustrated with photographs taken from a sequence of clinically suitable case examples that in particular illustrate some great benefits of greater snapshot solution for the research of universal retinochoroidal issues. In so doing, this atlas deals an all-encompassing survey of the various angiographic indicators in those problems and their differential diagnoses. Clinicians in all subspecialties of ophthalmology can make the most of a greater knowing of those pathophysiological phenomena.
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Additional resources for Fluorescence Angiography In Ophthalmology
Classification of the fundus autofluorescence changes outside the central area of geographic atrophy, using terminology recently introduced in the literature*. e. progression of the central atrophic areas is related to the patterns of abnormal fluorescence. In eyes with no elevated autofluorescence at the margins of the atrophic zone (‘none’) there is only a very slow increase in size, while the ‘trickling’ pattern is associated with a very high rate of progression. This is also relevant for interventional studies when recruiting subjects with the highest likelihood of rapid progression.
In early cases of AMD, there are areas of elevated FAF. These areas don’t correspond to visible findings like retinal drusen, however, and they are highly variable. Focal areas of hyperpigmentation are almost always accompanied by elevated FAF (melanolipofuscin); areas of retinal drusen are heterogeneous, and can have elevated, reduced or normal levels of FAF. Areas of geographic atrophy in the advanced stages of AMD are characterized by a marked reduction in FAF, since in these areas the RPE and its autofluorescent lipofuscin have been de- stroyed.
The maximal light level (about 2 mW/cm2) lies well below the allowable limits set by international standards. 2 Scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and modified fundus photography In vivo images of optimal quality and resolution can be captured by confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (cSLO) using the HRA classic, the HRA2 or the Spectralis HRA/OCT instru- The operational sequence of a fundus examination with the cSLO Prior to imaging fundus autofluorescence, the infrared mode of the camera is first used with the auxiliary lens in place to focus the fundus image.