By Michael Kenney
From Pablo to Osama is a comparative research of Colombian drug-smuggling organisations, terrorist networks (including al Qaeda), and the legislation enforcement companies that search to dismantle them. Drawing on a wealth of analysis fabrics, together with interviews with former drug traffickers and different hard-to-reach informants, Michael Kenney explores how drug traffickers, terrorists, and govt officers assemble, research, and practice wisdom and event. The research unearths that the resilience of the Colombian drug alternate and Islamist extremism in wars on medicines and terrorism stems partially from the power of illicit organizations to alter their actions according to sensible adventure and technical details, shop this data in practices and systems, and choose and continue workouts that produce passable effects. Traffickers and terrorists “learn,” development abilities, enhancing practices, and changing into more and more tricky for kingdom specialists to do away with. The booklet concludes by way of exploring theoretical and coverage implications, suggesting that good fortune in wars on medications and terrorism relies much less on combating illicit networks with govt intelligence and extra on conquering competency traps—traps that compel coverage makers to use militarized enforcement techniques again and again with out wondering no matter if those courses are able to generating the meant effects.
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Extra info for From Pablo to Osama: Trafficking and Terrorist Networks, Government Bureaucracies, and Competitive Adaptation
And they coerce, intimidate, and, if necessary, harm those who jeopardize enterprise security. Many trafﬁcking routines are reasonably simple, such as recruiting family members and life-long friends to join a trafﬁcking group. These practices can be executed without much coordination or planning among participants. Other routines are more complicated, involving a series of actions among numerous participants from different groups. The Architecture of Drug Trafﬁcking j 39 In general, the greater the risks of a particular transaction, the more intricate the procedures for carrying it out.
40 Yet both types of networks contain rule-bearing, role-wearing participants who organize their operations in pursuit of collective aims. Their dissimilar missions and objectives notwithstanding, drug trafﬁckers and terrorists seek to reduce their exposure to risk and uncertainty, including government enforcement efforts. Meanwhile, drugcontrol and counterterrorism agencies seek to identify, apprehend, and ultimately dismantle trafﬁcking and terrorist groups, reafﬁrming the state’s ability to enforce law and order.
11 Unlike wheels, chains often lack mechanisms for sharing risks and resolving disputes among different nodes, which increases their vulnerability to government interdiction and theft. The lack of a central coordinating body also means that chain networks may require more time to recover from law enforcement disruptions to individual nodes. Yet chain networks are more resistant to head-hunting approaches to drug control: there are no ‘‘high value’’ core-group leaders for law enforcers to capture, and those participants who are detained are generally easy to replace (see Fig.