By Stephen D. Hoath
From droplet formation to ultimate purposes, this functional ebook provides the topic in a entire and transparent shape, utilizing merely content material derived from the newest released results.Starting on the very starting, the subject of fluid mechanics is defined, bearing in mind an appropriate regime for printing inks to to that end be chosen. There then follows a dialogue on diversified print-head forms and the way to shape droplets, masking the habit of droplets in flight and upon impression with the substrate, in addition to the droplet's wetting and drying habit on the substrate. typically saw results, reminiscent of the espresso ring impact, are integrated in addition to printing within the 3rd size. The booklet concludes with a glance at what the long run holds. As a special function, labored examples either on the sensible and simulation point, in addition to case reports are incorporated. accordingly, scholars and engineers in R&D will come to completely comprehend the whole strategy of inkjet printing
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Extra info for Fundamentals of inkjet printing : the science of inkjet and droplets
7 Computational Fluid Dynamics The equations that govern ﬂuid ﬂow cannot be solved analytically for most practical applications. Instead, they are usually solved using some form of numerical technique. Computational ﬂuid dynamics (CFD) is the science of predicting the behavior of ﬂuid ﬂow and related transport phenomena by solving the underlying governing equations using numerical methods [6, 9–12]. The development of CFD solution methods is a complex undertaking that requires multidisciplinary expertise in ﬁelds that include ﬂuid mechanics, multiphase and phase change phenomena and numerical methods, and so on.
The sum of the forces on a mass of ﬂuid within a CV equals the rate of change of its 21 22 2 Fluid Mechanics for Inkjet Printing momentum. , gravitational) that act on the CV. In the last term, S is a (second rank) tensor that accounts for surface forces. 14) ← → → In this expression I is the unit tensor and ← ???? is the viscous stress tensor, which depends on the ﬂuid, for example, its functional form is diﬀerent for Newtonian and non-Newtonian ﬂuids. 15) where ???? and ???? are the ﬁrst (absolute) and second (bulk) coeﬃcients of viscosity, respectively.
3b. If a cylindrical column of liquid of length L is stretched along its axis at a velocity V , the uniaxial strain rate ????̇ is given by: ????̇ = V ∕L and the axial stress ???? is linearly proportional to the strain rate: ???? = ????T ????̇ 7 8 1 Introductory Remarks The constant of proportionality ????T is called the extensional viscosity, and for a Newtonian liquid, ????T is three times the shear viscosity ????. The ratio ????T ∕???? is called the Trouton ratio and can be signiﬁcantly greater than 3 for non-Newtonian liquids that are viscoelastic.