By Wolfram Holand, George H. Beall
This authoritative publication examines a few of the different types of glass-ceramic fabrics, the equipment in their improvement, and the numerous functions for glass-ceramics. It seems at glass-ceramics as new fabrics with new houses and descriptions the increasing areas for using those extraordinary fabrics, particularly for biomedical reasons. offers a basic rationalization of the recent iteration of glass-ceramics in an easy-to-use structure. an ideal source for college kids, scientists, medical professionals, and engineers or an individual attracted to usual or scientific technology and know-how.
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Extra info for Glass Ceramic Technology
Nephelines containing (After Ferry and Blencoe, 1978). more than six Na ions per unit cell, the excess Na must be accommodated on the large alkali site. Since ions smaller than K do not achieve full contact with the surrounding channel oxygens, Na substitution must involve either the collapse of the hexagonal channels or an offcentering of Na toward the channel wall. In any case, unusual microwave absorption has been observed with such high soda nephelines. The thermal expansion coefficient for sodium nepheline, the end-member, is approximately 90 x lO-' K-', while the natural potassic material is higher, approximately 120 x lO-' K-l.
1967), could show that the high-temperature form was precipitated by crystallization from melts above the transition range, while precipitation from an aqueous solution at or near room temperature results in the low-temperature form. When the Crystal Structures and M i n e r a l Properties low-temperature form is heated, it transforms irreversibly at 502°C to the high-temperature form. P I 37 9 C) Diphosphates (Pyrophosphates) Diphosphates of the Na27Ca3Al5(p207)1 2 - t ~ ~ e demonstrate an equally complex structure.
5). The structures of low- and high-temperature forms of Li3P04crystals are similar. Keffer et al. (1967), determined that both Li and P are in tetrahedral coordination and are tightly held together by cornersharing of the tetrahedra. Each oxygen is tetrahedrally coordinated with three lithium and one phosphorus atom. The high form of Li3P04 shows an orthorhombic structure and is characterized by a = 6. 923 A and space group Pmn2,. The high-temperature form is demonstrated in Fig. 1-24. Keefer et al.