By Barbara Benham Tye
This paintings scrutinizes the forces which paintings extra time to tug cutting edge tasks, programmes and procedures again to extra conventional territories which are widespread to such a lot americans.
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Additional resources for Hard Truths: Uncovering the Deep Structure of Schooling
5. The demands of teaching and the nature of the teaching profession. Any one of these inhibiting forces may be strong enough to defeat change. When combined, their effects are so powerful that unless the proposed change is fundamentally compatible with emerging shifts in the deep Page 4 structure, institutionalization of the changeeven when adapted to suit local conditionsmay be virtually impossible. Finally, my hypothesis was complete: Reforms of any kind won't "stick" unless they are compatible with the existing deep structure of the society or with the direction in which the deep structure may be shifting.
Kettering/IDEA model of individually guided education (IGE), which included, at the secondary level, the teacher-advisor concept; heterogeneous grouping of the entire student body (no more ninth-grade English, tenth-grade social studies, or physics open only to seniors); a yearly calendar of four 9-week terms; and a catalog of mini-courses half an inch thick for students to choose from. There also were increased parent involvement, with regular parent/student/teacher conferences (the student chairing the meeting), and use of the community as a learning resource.
All students, even those with identified disabilities, must take state tests and meet challenging standards. Under optimal conditions these new aspirations could represent an exciting professional challenge. When resources and capabilities remain the same, such demands are profoundly frustrating. A decade ago, political leaders professed to agree with the late Al Shanker, then head of the American Federation of Teachers, that students would not attain higher levels of proficiency without substantial changes in the way schools were organized and run (Brandt, 1990).