By Aaron Asadi (Head of Publishing)
The the way it Works publication Of the weather covers all recognized parts on the earth within the order within which they seem within the periodic desk. From lanthanoids to actinoids, alkali metals to transition metals, halogens to noble gases – you will find all you want to learn about the universe’s construction blocks here.
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Additional resources for How It Works Book of the Elements
Found in fireworks, creating sparks and increasing a firework’s overall brightness. It was Scottish chemist Joseph Black who ﬁrst identiﬁed magnesium as an element in 1755. Black was experimenting with magnesia alba (magnesium carbonate, MgCO3), which was – and still is – used as an antacid to relieve heartburn. Magnesia alba, which means “white magnesia”, is an ore that was found in the Magnesia region of Greece. English chemist Humphry Davy ﬁrst prepared the element magnesium, in an amalgam with mercury, in 1808 – and French chemist Antoine Bussy isolated the ﬁrst samples of magnesium metal proper 20 years later.
ATOMIC RADIUS: 155 pm 50 How it Works Book of The Elements Group 4 | The Transition metals 72 Hf Hafnium ATOMIC NUMBER: 72 ATOMIC RADIUS: 155 pm OXIDATION STATES: +2, +3, +4 Element 72, hafnium, is another silver-grey transition metal, with properties, alloys and applications very similar to the other Group 4 metals titanium and zirconium (see pages 47 and 50). There are two particular uses of hafnium that stand out. First, like zirconium, hafnium is used in nuclear reactors; but unlike zirconium, hafnium does absorb neutrons produced in nuclear reactions.
Rubidium compounds are used in some solar cells, and in the future this element may be put to use in ion drive engines for spacecra exploring deep space, since rubidium ionizes very easily. Right: Rubidium turns the bunsen flame a distinctive red-violet when held in it. Above: Elemental rubidium, a shiny metal with a melting point of 39ºC – lower than that of candle wax and only slightly higher than that of chocolate. 32 How it Works Book of The Elements Group 1 | The Alkali Metals 55 Cs Caesium Unlike other elements in Group 1, pure caesium has a slight golden tinge.