Download How the Snake Lost its Legs: Curious Tales from the Frontier by Lewis I. Held Jr PDF

By Lewis I. Held Jr

How did the zebra particularly get its stripes, and the giraffe its lengthy neck? what's the technological know-how in the back of camel humps, leopard spots, and different animal oddities? Such questions have interested us for hundreds of years, however the increasing box of evo-devo (evolutionary developmental biology) is now offering, for the 1st time, a wealth of insights and solutions. Taking thought from Kipling's 'Just So Stories', this publication weaves rising insights from evo-devo right into a narrative that gives startling factors for the foundation and evolution of qualities around the animal country. Held's specific and interesting kind makes this narrative either enlightening and enjoyable, guiding scholars and researchers via even complicated techniques and inspiring a fuller figuring out of the most recent advancements within the box. the 1st 5 chapters disguise the 1st bilaterally symmetric animals, flies, butterflies, snakes, and cheetahs. a last bankruptcy surveys contemporary effects a few menagerie of different animals

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Extra info for How the Snake Lost its Legs: Curious Tales from the Frontier of Evo-Devo

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Basitarsus (panoramic view) of a right adult midleg. Males and females exhibit this same pattern. Rows 1 and 8 are separated by a wide gap that is full of hairs (Vs) – one per cell. (See refs. [1114,2043] for why this interstripe is so strange). Tiny triangles above bristle sockets denote thick, dark hairs called bracts. Bracts are induced by bristles [521,964]. There are five curved (chemosensory) bristles which lack bracts, plus three campaniform sensilla (white circles). d–f. Bristle pattern formation on the foreleg of a D.

Scr Puzzle #2 (how Scr overcame A/P mirror symmetry) was solved in 2011, at least to a first approximation [2171]. Before evaluating the evidence we must first examine how Scr, along with dsx, creates the sex comb – the structure that gave the gene Scr its name (Sex combs reduced). The sex comb is a row of peculiar (thick, dark, blunt, and curved) bristles found only in males [1191]. It gets its name from the resemblance of its bristles to the teeth of a pocket comb for combing one’s hair. It evolved ß62 MY ago [80,1193].

The ta1 and ta2 tarsal segments of the very same species (D. rhopaloa) make their respective combs via different routes (Fig. 6c, f)! 4. Distantly related species have occasionally adopted the very same mechanism independently by evolutionary convergence (Fig. 6d)! Few novelties in any other animal rival the sex comb’s potential as a model system for dissecting the gene circuitry underlying anatomy at the cellular level [84,1190]. Combs therefore offer a playground for researchers to explore how Hox genes individuate body segments and how sex-determination genes enforce dimorphisms.

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