By John Levenhagen
Not more necessary reference for the dressmaker or specifier of HVAC keep an eye on platforms exists than this entire "cookbook" of commonplace segments and sequences. This necessary expert compendium offers a large array of diagrams that gives every thing you must layout controls for an in-place or in-plan HVAC process; deals ready-to-go info for retrofitting, updating, or designing controls for altered platforms; permits transparent comparisons between advertisement keep an eye on platforms; indicates you frequently-made and worthwhile ameliorations to controls; demonstrates the right way to create controls for height potency, air caliber, and effort conservation; covers air dealing with, terminal, and first platforms; bargains sequences and segments for nearly any HVAC method desire; and indicates you ways usual regulate algorithms paintings specifically structures. those hugely precious keep watch over diagrams, lots of them akin to commercially to be had types, allow you to layout or specify wanted configurations within the best demeanour attainable. Written by means of a greatly skilled HVAC keep watch over engineer, in complete compliance with ASHRAE criteria, and protecting either and software program functions, this exact quantity fills a distinct want. It totally merits a spot of honor inside of effortless achieve of each HVAC engineer's layout table.
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Additional info for HVAC Control System Design Diagrams
The electrical characteristics on an electric circuit that are the most important to refrigeration, heating, and air conditioning technicians are voltage, amperage, and resistance. Electric meters are manufactured to measure either one or a combination which will include all three of these characteristics. The single use types are generally easier to use than the multiple use types. Also, when a multiple use meter must be repaired, some method must be devised to take the proper readings while the meter is in the repair shop.
Figure 4-2 Outside force on an electron. Orbital Shells: Electrons are located in the atomic shells that surround the nucleus of every atom. Each atom can have up to seven shells, depending on the nature of the element. See Table 4-1. ElementElectrons per shell12345671234567 79 Gold, Au28183218192Uranium, U2818322192 80 Mercury, Hg28183218293Neptunium, Np2818322292 81 Thallium, Tl28183218394Plutonium, Pu2818322392 82 Lead, Pb28183218495Americium, Am2818322492 83 Bismuth, Bi28183218596Curium, Cm2818322592 84 Polonium, Po28183218697Berkelium, Bk2818322692 85 Astatine, At28183218798Californium, Cf2818322792 86 Radon, Rn28183218899Einsteinium, E2818322892 87 Francium, Fr2818321881100Fermium, Fm2818322992 88 Radium, Ra2818321882101Mendelevium, Mv2818323092 89 Actinium, Ac2818321892102Nobelium, No2818323192 90 Thorium, Th2818321892103Lawrencium, Lw2818323292 91 Protactinium, Pa2818321892 The electrons located in shells closer to the nucleus are more difficult to free because of the strong attraction to the positive charge of the nucleus.
When extremely small resistance is involved the microhm (W) which is one-millionth of an ohm is used. When larger resistance readings are involved the (MW) which is one million ohms or a megohm is used. Units of resistance are shown in Table 5-3. 5 Meg A circuit has a resistance of one ohm when an EMF of 1 volt causes a current of 1 ampere to flow through it. Figure 5-8 shows two electric circuits with the same voltage but different resistances, and current flow. The different current flow is because of the difference in resistance.