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By G. P. Cherepancy

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Then the time constant ratio is expressed via Eqs. 25), which yields: "i/i,n/4/i,l Eliminating ~-~r I ~" --- [exp(-J~rVArn/kT ) - 1]l[exp(- g]rVArl/kT ) - 1] ((n)) ~i,n/~i,1 between the two preceding relations yields: 1- kT/ Vr Y . A . 31) allows Or to be determined as a function of experimental data such as Vr measured along the first relaxation of the series and the A r~s. Then Eq. 25) is used to obtain V. This last method is preferred to determine V since Vr and the ArJs are easily and safely measured.

DEFORMATION EXPERIMENTS IN THE ELECTRON MICROSCOPE In the history of electron microscopy, 1956 is a crucial date: the first foils were made, thin enough to yield images of crystalline defects. Hirsch et al. (1956) were the first ones to report dislocation movements under thermal stresses generated by the beam of 100 keV electrons. Two years later, Wilsdorf (1958) performed the first in situ tensile experiments in a 100 kV TEM. He identified several dislocation mechanisms that were proposed previously.

The procedure of successive stress relaxations (schematics). Definition of the parameters used. See text. 5) can be compared. The same dislocation density is moving in both cases. 1). 3 Creep tests At a given point of the stress-strain curve, the monotonic test is interrupted and the stress is kept constant. The strain is recorded as a function of time. 5) indicates that strain increments, A T, from the onset of the transient are plastic strain increments, A Tp. 6. The slope of the curve yields the plastic strain-rate, 4/p.

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